Referencing and Cross-referencing in Latex

Article Summary

In this article, we can add a number of Latex snippets that are essential for citing external paper or resource (referencing) and citing internal items of the paper like a section, subsection, table or a figure.

Latex Code Snippets

For adding references to your paper in Latex, there are two ways :

1. Using \begin{bibliography}:

We add the References section always after the Conclusion section, at the end of the paper. We add each reference as a \bibitem, containing the name of a label(here, ref_lncs1). In order to mention this reference in the paper, we write: \cite{ref_lncs1}

Author, F., Author, S.: Title of a proceedings paper. In: Editor, F., Editor, S. (eds.) CONFERENCE 2016, LNCS, vol. 9999, pp. 1--13. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). \doi{10.10007/1234567890}

2. Using BibTex :  


3. Adding footnotes:

In case of a 2-column format, this will appear at the bottom of your column, separated by a line in case. In case of a single column format like Springer llcns, it will appear at the bottom of your page, separated by a single line.

To add a footnote inside the text, you use the command : “\footnote{text_content1}”

. This “text_content1” is usually an url, particularly a Github repo link.

4. Adding references inside text :

To cite a paper, we write :


as shown in  the code of point 1.

5. Referencing tables and figures : 

We use the \label tag to assign the name to the entity(maybe a table, figure or even a section), by which it will be called or referenced in different parts of the document. Let us for example consider the following templates, one for a table and second for a figure. Both of them make use of the \label tag.

5.1 Table :
\caption{Classifier performance results}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|} \hline
Features (and Models)&Accuracy (in \%)\\ \hline
Baseline 1 (Linear SVM using n-grams)& 59.3\\
Baseline 2 & 64.1\\
Our approach(lexicon based) & 68.4\\
Ensemble SVM model (Optimal) & 69.7\\
5.2 Figure :  

I will later write an article on how to programmatically create Latex pictures using tikzpicture .

\caption{Workflow of our proposed methodology} 
5.3 Sections, subsections :

6. Examples in Latex used in our paper :

Here, instead of \cite which we previously showed for referencing bibliographic references, we will now use \ref to mention or reference a table, figure or section.

a) We show the performance of the classifier across different feature sets in Table~\ref{table:classificationresults}.
b) In Figure \ref{fig:workflow}, we provide a detailed workflow of our proposed methodology.
c) We motivate and outline the research challenges and the key contributions of this paper in Section \ref{introduction}.


Hello everyone. I am Soumyadeep. I have been working on Machine learning projects for the last 4 years. I am now pursuing Ph.D. in Computer Science Department at IIT Kharagpur. I recently completed M.S (Research) from the same department in November, 2019. My research interests involve applying Machine Learning, NLP and Deep Learning to solve Online Reputation Monitoring and Consumer Health Search problems.

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